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  1. Ward v. Flood, 1872
    B. Gordon Wheeler. Black California: The history of African-Americans in the Golden State, (1993).

  2. Tape v. Hurley, 1885
    Go to PBS Site Map web page online to see a section of the broadcast "Ancestors in the Americas" relating to Mamie Tape (Click on the Quicktime or Real Player link for "Sneak peek at Loni Ding's new short documentary, Mamie Tape vs. the Board of Education" within the left side bar).

    Visit the present web site for San Francisco's Spring Valley Elementary School, which Mamie Tape wanted to attend. How does the ethnic background of the students today compare with the students in 1888?

  3. Piper v. Big Pine, 1924
    John R. Wunder, Retained by The People: A History of American Indians and the Bill of Rights, (1994).

  4. Mendez v. Westminster, 1946

  5. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
    Monroe Elementary School, one of the four segregated elementary schools for African American children in Topeka, has been made a national historic site, owned by the National Park Service, and open to the public.

    View the Kansas Interpretive Traveling Exhibit Service: “Brown vs. Board of Education, In Pursuit of Freedom and Equality” on-line exhibit.

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