- Students will use topographical maps
- Students will understand the challenges involved in building the railroad in the Sierra Nevada mountains.
Student Task: Students will use a topographical map to plan a route from Donner Summit to Truckee, then compare it with the route selected by Theodore Judah.
Time Required: Two 50 minute class periods
Recommended Grade Level: 4-8
Lesson Content and Standards References:
California Department of Education
Subject Areas: History-Social Science, Language Arts, Technology
USGS Topographical Maps - Truckee
California State Archives, Secretary of State, Central Pacific Railroad Map, 1861 (#169, MCI:11-2)
Materials and Preparation:
Download and print Topo Map Donner/Truckee
Download and print Student Instructions
Download and print Judah's Map of Donner/Truckee
- Discuss with students the use of topographical maps, making sure they understand the idea of contour lines following the same elevation. The contour map they will be using has lines in 50 meter increments. Help them to understand that the closer the lines are together, the steeper the terrain is. It might be helpful to make an overhead transparency of the Topo map to show during class training and discussion.
- As a background, tell students that most trains made in the 1860s could not go up more than a 2% grade. This translates into approximately 100 feet elevation change per mile of track. On the map the students use, one contour line is 162 feet. For estimation purposes, students should not drop down more than one contour line per 1 1/2 mile of track. Each square on the map equals one mile, so they should be able to estimate the distance they are traveling. The route which Judah designed dropped approximately 350 meters in 12 miles so it was actually close to a 2% grade. This was accomplished by tunneling through certain areas. Tunneling was extremely time consuming and expensive so it was to be avoided if possible. Another problem Judah faced was the need to make rounded turns. Tight turns lead to derailments so the turn could not be too sharp.
- Distribute Topo map Donner/Truckee
- Distribute "Student Instructions"
- Suggest to students that they try to find the route they are going to use without marking up the map at first. This should save a lot of erasures. Encourage them to avoid too many tunnels and to especially avoid steep grades. (The train could not get up it.)
- After students have finished their routes, show them the map made by Judah (the original map is made of linen and is 61 feet long, showing the route from San Francisco through Nevada. The photograph you are showing is only approximately 7 feet of the total.) Tell students to compare his route with the one they drew. If they are struggling with the project, it might be helpful to show them Judah's map after they have worked at a route for awhile. They can look at the Judah map and try to find the corresponding lines on their topographical map.
- When students finish, allow them to compare their route with the original. Have them work in pairs to check each other's map and to justify their route. If you wish, a copy of the topographical map showing the railroad lines is also available.
Students will be evaluated by their efforts on the topographical map going from Donner Summit to Truckee.
- If there is a railroad in your town, ask students to speculate about the impact the railroad has had in the development of the town. If there had never been one, how would the town's history have differed?
- If there is no railroad in yoour town, ask students to specualte what changes might have occured in your community if one had gone there. What kinds of products would your town ship by rail. Would a railroad allow the town to produce things they could not without one? (i.e lumber, crops, tourism, etc)
- Look at a topographical map of your community. Plan where you would build a railroad right of way. Alternately, look at an existing rail line and see how it was planned according to the guideline of no more than 100 feet per mile change in elevation.
- Subways and light rail move people the way trains do. How would having one of these in your town change it? What problems would it creat and what problems would it bring?
- Using a city or county map, design a subway or light rail which moves the greatest number of people. It should run from housing areas to shopping and work areas.