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Conquest of California  

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(1) Graebner, p. 124

(2) Ibid. p.6

(3) Ibid. p. 149

(4) The first major American enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine came in 1866, when American troops massed along the Mexican border to prevent French intrigue in Mexico.

(5)Bean, p. 92

(6) Had McNamara's scheme been successful, the presence of thousands of pro-Mexican Catholics in California would have seriously hindered the American conquest and pacification of California. However, McNamara never had a chance to even carry out his grandiose, and probably unworkable scheme, as he received the grant for his colony the same day the American conquest began.

(7) One reason why such revolts utterly lacked violence was that due to constant intermarriage, the Californio elite was highly related, and thus usually the men on both sides of the out-of-range artillery duels were kin by some means. (Bean, p. 61)

(8) Ferrell, p. 209

(9) Bean, p. 97

(10) Frémont would be the first Republican Party Presidential candidate in 1856, but he lost to James Buchanan.

(11) Bean, p. 102

(12) At that time, the highest rank in the Navy was that of Captain; "Commodore" was a title, denoting the commander of a squadron of ships. Thus "Commodores" ap Catesby Jones, Sloat and Stockton.

(13) Harlow, p. 159

(14) Clark, p. 206

(15)Harlow, p. 203



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